Profilaxis y tratamiento del raquitismo carencial

20 de enero de 2021 |
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Profilaxis y tratamiento del raquitismo carencial

Un aporte energético equilibrado es necesario para el normal crecimiento del niño, además de una ingesta suficiente de hierro, vitamina D y calcio para la correcta mineralización ósea.

La suplementación industrial sistemática de fórmulas lácteas infantiles con vitamina D junto a la recomendación de exponer al sol a los lactantes y al uso de preparados orales de vitamina D como medidas profilácticas del raquitismo en los niños han contribuido a la práctica erradicación de esta enfermedad en los países desarrollados.

A pesar de ello, en el mundo globalizado actual se producen importantes flujos migratorios de poblaciones que proceden de zonas como África subsahariana o la región indopakistaní, que siguen manteniendo muy arraigados sus hábitos socioculturales. Siguen utilizando sus indumentarias tradicionales que cubren la mayor parte del cuerpo, mantienen una vida social que transcurre fundamentalmente en el interior de las viviendas con escasa actividad al aire libre y siguen fomentando la lactancia materna exclusiva de forma muy prolongada.

Este nuevo escenario parece estar determinando el resurgir del raquitismo en nuestro medio como así lo avalan numerosas publicaciones que recogen una amplia casuística de lactantes y niños afectos de raquitismo carencial en estos últimos años en Europa.

El raquitismo supone importantes problemas en el crecimiento y el desarrollo durante la infancia y la adolescencia y sus consecuencias pueden permanecer durante la edad adulta o incluso ser letales. La adquisición de una masa ósea adecuada durante la infancia y la adolescencia disminuye el riesgo de fracturas osteoporóticas en la edad adulta.

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